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How Much Co2 Does London Produce – Time For Change?

London, the buzzing capital of England and a global hub for finance, culture, and history.

This sprawling city is home to iconic landmarks, like the Big Ben and the Tower Bridge. However, with its vibrant life and activities, comes a carbon footprint – a footprint that we’ll unravel in this article. How much CO2 does London actually produce?

tl;dr: London produces millions of tonnes of CO2 annually, mainly from transportation, residential heating, and commercial energy use. Efforts are underway to reduce these emissions, but there’s still a long way to go.

Table of Contents

London’s CO2 Emissions Stats

Lets start with the numbers, according to data from the Greater London Authority, London was responsible for emitting approximately 33 million tonnes of CO2 in 2019. That’s comparable to the entire carbon output of some smaller nations! Breaking it down, several sectors are particularly culpable:

  1. Transportation: This is London’s main culprit, accounting for nearly 40% of the city’s emissions. The constant hum of buses, cars, and underground trains contribute significantly to the CO2 levels.
  2. Homes: Residential areas in London contribute to about 29% of the city’s emissions. This includes heating, electricity, and other energy uses.
  3. Commercial and Industrial: These sectors account for around 31% of the city’s emissions.


Transportation in London is a carbon heavyweight. The iconic red buses, the black cabs, the ever-present personal cars, and even the underground – they all add up. According to studies from Transport for London, the capital’s public and private transportation systems emit roughly 13 million tonnes of CO2 annually.

The Underground System

You might think the underground, being electrically powered, is a beacon of green travel. However, the reality is slightly more complicated. While it’s definitely more efficient per passenger than cars, the sheer volume of journeys means it’s still a significant contributor.

According to a report by The Carbon Trust, the underground emitted over 500,000 tonnes of CO2 in a single year. And that’s without considering the emissions from constructing new lines or upgrading existing ones.

Personal Vehicles

Despite the Congestion Charge and Low Emission Zone initiatives, cars still rule many of London’s streets. Personal vehicles account for a significant portion of the city’s transportation emissions. According to data from TFL, cars in London contributed to over 6 million tonnes of CO2 emissions in 2019.

Residential Energy Use

Heating our homes, especially during the chilly London winters, contributes a significant chunk to the city’s carbon emissions. This isn’t just about electricity – many London homes still rely on gas for heating and cooking.

Natural Gas

Natural gas, while cleaner than coal, is still a fossil fuel. When burned, it releases CO2 into the atmosphere. According to the Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy, homes in London emitted around 9.5 million tonnes of CO2 in 2019 just from burning gas.

Commercial and Industrial

Businesses and industries in London, from the skyscrapers of Canary Wharf to the factories in Park Royal, all need energy. And while many are transitioning to green energy sources, there’s still a reliance on fossil fuels.

Energy Consumption Patterns

According to Carbon Brief, London’s commercial and industrial sectors consumed around 60 Terawatt hours (TWh) of energy in 2019. This led to the emission of about 10 million tonnes of CO2.

Efforts are being made, with many businesses transitioning to renewable energy sources, but the journey is far from over.

What’s Being Done?

London is well aware of its carbon challenges. Mayor Sadiq Khan has announced ambitious plans to make London carbon-neutral by 2030.

The controversial decision to expand the ultra-low emission zones, known as ULEZ, promoting electric vehicles, and transitioning public transport to greener fuels have garnered questionable roll out strategies that penalize citizens from mid to lower social classes.

Greening the Red Buses

An exciting initiative is the transition of London’s bus fleet to electric. According to London City Hall, there’s a plan to ensure all buses are zero-emission by 2037. As of 2021, over 500 electric buses were already on the roads, with more being added regularly.

Note: It’s essential to understand that while CO2 is a significant greenhouse gas, it’s not the only one. Methane, for instance, is over 25 times more potent at trapping heat over a 100-year period. Therefore, while this article focuses on CO2, a comprehensive view of London’s environmental impact would need to consider other emissions as well.

Tackling climate change is a global challenge, and cities like London play a pivotal role. As one of the world’s major metropolises, its steps towards sustainability can set an example for others to follow.

With concerted efforts from policymakers, businesses, and the public, there’s hope that London can significantly reduce its carbon footprint in the coming decades, but the debates about the deadline by 2030 is a lofty and controversial one.

London’s Built Environment

Skyscrapers, historic buildings, new constructions, and renovations all come with a carbon cost. The built environment is often an overlooked sector when considering a city’s carbon emissions, but it’s a significant contributor.

Embodied Carbon: The Hidden Culprit

Embodied carbon refers to the CO2 emissions produced during the construction, renovation, and demolition of buildings. It encompasses everything from the extraction and manufacturing of building materials to the transportation and application of these materials.

According to the UK Green Building Council, the construction sector, including infrastructure, was responsible for approximately 10% of the UK’s total carbon dioxide emissions in 2019. Given London’s continuous development and construction activities, a substantial portion of this can be attributed to the capital.

The Energy Consumption of Buildings

Beyond the embodied carbon in construction, the energy buildings use once they’re occupied has its carbon price. From lighting to air conditioning and elevators, the skyscrapers and office blocks that define London’s skyline are energy-hungry. According to the London Energy Transformation Initiative (LETI), commercial buildings in London used over 22 TWh of electricity in 2019, contributing significantly to CO2 emissions.

London’s Path Forward?

Green energy is steadily becoming more than just a buzzword. With the global push towards sustainability, cities worldwide are looking to renewable sources to meet their energy needs, and London is no exception.

Solar Energy: Tapping into the Sun

While London might not be synonymous with sunshine, it has significant potential for solar energy. According to a report by the Solar Trade Association, London has the capacity to produce over 1 GW of solar power – enough to power 250,000 homes. Recent years have seen an uptick in solar panel installations on rooftops across the city.

Wind Power

While London doesn’t have sprawling wind farms like some other parts of the UK, there are efforts to incorporate small-scale wind solutions, especially in more open spaces and newer buildings.

According to RenewableUK, London has the potential to produce several hundred MW from wind energy, given the right infrastructure and investments.

Waste Management

It’s not just about what’s in the air; what’s on the ground matters too. The way a city deals with its waste has direct implications for CO2 emissions.

Landfill Emissions

When organic waste decays, it produces methane, a greenhouse gas even more potent than CO2. London, like many cities, struggles with managing its waste.

While recycling rates have improved, a lot still ends up in landfills. According to the Waste & Resources Action Programme (WRAP), London sent over 3 million tonnes of waste to landfills in 2019, leading to substantial greenhouse gas emissions.

Recycling and Composting

London’s push towards better waste management has seen an increase in recycling and composting, which can significantly reduce the amount of organic waste in landfills.

According to London City Hall’s reports, recycling rates in London increased to 33% in 2019, showing a positive trajectory towards managing waste in a more environmentally friendly manner.

Note: Individual actions matter. Beyond the macro strategies and numbers, it’s crucial for London’s residents to be aware of their personal carbon footprints. This includes understanding the energy consumed in homes, the mode of transport used, waste disposal habits, and even dietary choices. Every small step taken by individuals aggregates to make a massive difference for the city and the planet.

London’s Green Spaces

Amidst the hustle and bustle, London boasts an array of parks, gardens, and natural spaces. While they might appear just as spots of tranquility or recreational areas, these green spaces play a critical role in London’s carbon equation.


Trees absorb CO2, making them invaluable assets in any urban setting. London is home to approximately 8 million trees, covering about 20% of its land area, according to a study by Treeconomics. These trees collectively absorb more than 2.4 million tonnes of CO2 annually. The city’s commitment to increasing its tree canopy to 30% by 2050 under the Urban Forest Plan signifies its acknowledgment of the essential role trees play in offsetting carbon emissions.

Grasslands and Wetlands

Beyond trees, London’s grasslands and wetlands also act as carbon sinks. They sequester carbon in their soil and vegetation. Places like the London Wetland Centre play a pivotal role in both carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation.

The Thames and Waterways

The River Thames is the lifeline of London, but when discussing CO2 emissions, water bodies are often overlooked.

Carbon Sequestration in Waterways

Water bodies can absorb and store a substantial amount of CO2, especially in areas rich in aquatic plants. The Thames and its tributaries, with their extensive aquatic ecosystems, contribute to this carbon sequestering process.

Transport on the Thames

The Thames isn’t just a static feature; it’s an active transport route. While water-based transport is generally more efficient and emits less CO2 than many land-based methods, the boats and vessels plying the Thames do contribute to emissions. A shift to cleaner, electric or hybrid boats, similar to Venice’s move towards electric vessels, can further help in reducing the river’s carbon output.

Tourism and Events: Carbon Footprints of London’s Fame

London’s appeal as a global tourist hotspot and a center for major events does come with its carbon consequences.

Travel Emissions from Tourism

London attracts over 30 million tourists annually, as per VisitBritain statistics. The transport emissions from these visitors, whether from international flights or local travel, contribute significantly to the city’s carbon footprint.

Events and Their Carbon Costs

From the Notting Hill Carnival to major football matches, events generate direct emissions from energy use and indirect emissions from visitors traveling to these events. These need to be factored into London’s overall carbon account.

Note: Understanding the full spectrum of a city’s carbon output requires looking beyond the obvious. Often, it’s the unaccounted sectors, like the silent trees or the flowing river, which can make a marked difference.


One of London’s strengths is its educational and research institutions. Universities like Imperial College London and University College London are at the forefront of research on sustainable solutions and clean technologies.

Research on Carbon Capture and Storage

Advanced techniques, like carbon capture and storage (CCS), are being explored as potential methods to offset emissions. London’s academic institutions are heavily invested in researching the feasibility and scalability of these technologies.

Grassroot Movements and Awareness

A plethora of grassroots organizations and community groups are working tirelessly to increase awareness about climate change and carbon emissions. Their efforts in organizing tree planting events, educational workshops, and local sustainability initiatives help in both tangible CO2 reduction and raising public consciousness.

The Role of Policy: Steering London’s Carbon Journey

Decisions made at the policy level can create ripple effects throughout a city, impacting everything from industry practices to individual habits. In the context of carbon emissions, London’s policy dynamics play a pivotal role.

Congestion Charge: Incentivizing Cleaner Commutes

Introduced in 2003, the Congestion Charge Zone (CCZ) was a pioneering move to reduce traffic and emissions in central London. Vehicles operating within this zone during specific hours need to pay a charge.

The impact? According to the Transport for London (TFL), there’s been a noticeable reduction in vehicle emissions within the CCZ, illustrating how policy can directly influence urban carbon output.

Building Regulations: Constructing a Greener Future

London’s building regulations have evolved to prioritize sustainability. Modern buildings in the city are required to meet specific energy efficiency standards, reducing their operational carbon footprint.

The London Plan, a strategic roadmap for the city’s development, mandates that new constructions must adhere to stringent energy performance criteria.

Food and Agriculture

London’s immense population has a colossal appetite, and the food supply chain linked to satisfying this hunger has its carbon implications.

Importing Food

Much of London’s food is imported. While this ensures a diverse and year-round supply, it also means a hefty carbon footprint tied to transportation. For instance, fruits flown in from overseas can have a carbon cost multiple times higher than locally sourced produce, according to the Carbon Trust.

Urban Farming

Amidst the urban sprawl, initiatives like vertical farms and community gardens are sprouting up. These urban agriculture models not only provide fresh, local produce but also reduce the carbon emissions linked to long-distance food transportation. The London Food Board actively promotes such initiatives, pushing for a more sustainable food network.

Education Sector: Cultivating a Conscious Future

The numerous schools, colleges, and universities in London don’t just educate; they also consume energy and resources, contributing to the city’s carbon equation.

Energy Use in Institutions

From heating in the winter months to the use of technology and equipment, educational institutions have a substantial energy demand. Efforts, however, are in place to transition schools and universities towards greener energy sources.

Environmental Curriculum: Shaping Informed Citizens

More than just the direct carbon output, London’s education sector plays a crucial role in shaping the future generation’s understanding of sustainability. The inclusion of environmental studies and climate change in curricula ensures that the future citizens of London are better informed and more conscious of their carbon decisions.

The Finance Sector: Investment Decisions Impacting Carbon

London’s position as a global financial hub means that the city’s financial decisions reverberate globally. The finance sector, while not a direct emitter on the scale of transportation or housing, indirectly influences carbon emissions significantly.

Green Bonds and Sustainable Financing

The rise of green bonds and sustainable financing options in London’s financial markets shows a trend towards investments that prioritize environmental sustainability. According to the London Stock Exchange, there’s been a steady uptick in the issuance of green bonds, signaling a shift in investment patterns.

Divestment from Fossil Fuels

Several London-based financial institutions are reconsidering their investments in fossil fuel projects, recognizing the long-term environmental implications. This divestment movement, while still in its early stages, can play a pivotal role in transitioning the world towards cleaner energy sources.


Tackling London’s carbon emissions is like piecing together a vast, intricate puzzle. Each sector, from transport and construction to the finance and food industries, plays its unique role in the city’s overall carbon narrative.

Policies, both at the local and national level, steer the direction, while individual and community actions add layers of complexity. As London moves forward, the amalgamation of top-down strategies with grassroots initiatives will be essential to curve its carbon trajectory towards a sustainable future.


What’s the primary source of London’s CO2 emissions?

Transportation, particularly road transport, has been a dominant source of CO2 emissions in London. However, other sectors like housing, commercial buildings, and industry also contribute significantly.

How are London’s green spaces helping combat CO2 emissions?

London’s parks, gardens, and trees act as carbon sinks, absorbing significant amounts of CO2 every year. These green spaces not only provide recreational value but also play a critical role in offsetting carbon emissions.

Are there initiatives in place to reduce emissions from the transport sector in London?

Yes, several. The introduction of the Ultra Low Emission Zone (ULEZ) and the Congestion Charge are among policies designed to reduce vehicular emissions. Additionally, there’s a push for electric buses, taxis, and personal vehicles.

How does the finance sector in London influence carbon emissions?

While the direct emissions from the finance sector might be low, its influence is substantial. Investment decisions, particularly those related to fossil fuels or sustainable projects, can shape global carbon outputs. The rise of green bonds and sustainable financing in London indicates a shift towards environmentally conscious investments.


  • Chris Chamberlan

    Chris Chamberlan, passionate animal welfare activist and USC graduate, conducted undercover RSPCA missions exposing slaughterhouse malpractices. A vegan and advocate for humane treatment, Chris has spoken at international conferences, been involved in vegan outreach, and founded Solarpunk Solutions for sustainability. His blending of animal welfare with eco-living principles for a compassionate future.

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