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Is High Impact Polystyrene Recyclable – Eco Guide

You might have come across High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) in your everyday life, as it is a common material used in consumer products like toys, electronics, and packaging materials.

HIPS is a versatile plastic made by combining polystyrene and polybutadiene rubber, which results in a material with greater strength and durability.

The Importance of Recycling

With increasing awareness of environmental issues, recycling has become more important than ever. Recycling materials like High Impact Polystyrene helps reduce waste, conserve resources, and minimize the impact of plastics on the environment.

This is especially crucial considering the current state of the oceans. The amount of plastic litter finding its way into the word oceans is alarming and has been gradually choking marine life. Recycling helps combat this grave problem.

The Environmental and Health Impacts

High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) is a type of polystyrene that is modified to increase its impact resistance and toughness. HIPS is used in various applications, including food packaging and consumer products.

Like other plastic materials, HIPS waste can pose health and environmental hazards

Chemical leaching

HIPS, like other polystyrene materials, can leach styrene into food and beverages, especially when exposed to heat or fatty substances.

A study published in Food and Chemical Toxicology (Biedermann et al., 2010) found that styrene migration could occur from polystyrene containers into food, posing potential health risks.

Carcinogenic potential

Styrene, a primary component of HIPS, has been classified as a possible human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).

Prolonged exposure to styrene has been linked to negative health effects, including headaches, fatigue, and respiratory issues, according to a review in Environmental Health Perspectives (Koppel et al., 2017).


HIPS waste can break down into microplastics, which can accumulate in the environment and enter the food chain. A study in Environmental Science & Technology (Eriksen et al., 2014) estimated that over 5 trillion pieces of plastic debris exist in the world’s oceans, posing a threat to marine ecosystems and human health.

Impact on wildlife

HIPS waste, like other plastic waste, can be mistaken for food by wildlife, causing injury or death when ingested. A review published in the journal Environmental Pollution (Gall and Thompson, 2015) highlighted the severe consequences of plastic waste ingestion on marine life, including entanglement and death.

Landfill space and air pollution

HIPS waste contributes to landfill space and, when incinerated, releases toxic pollutants into the air, including carbon monoxide, styrene monomer, and other hazardous substances.

A study in the journal Atmospheric Environment (Wang et al., 2007) found that waste incineration could emit harmful air pollutants that contribute to air pollution and human health risks.

Properties of High Impact Polystyrene

Chemical Composition

High Impact Polystyrene is composed of polystyrene and polybutadiene rubber. The polystyrene provides rigidity, while the polybutadiene rubber imparts toughness and impact resistance.

Physical Properties

HIPS has a number of desirable properties, such as:

  • Good impact resistance
  • Easy processability
  • High dimensional stability
  • Excellent printability

Advantages and Disadvantages

HIPS has several advantages, including its versatility, affordability, and durability. However, it is not biodegradable and can contribute to environmental pollution if not properly recycled.

Recycling of High Impact Polystyrene

Product Description Recyclable?
HIPS food packaging Packaging for food products Sometimes
HIPS disposable cutlery Forks, spoons, and knives for single-use Not always (check local recycling guidelines)
HIPS toys and novelties Toys and novelties made from HIPS Not always (check local recycling guidelines)
HIPS cosmetic packaging Packaging for cosmetics and personal care products Sometimes
HIPS electronic housing Housings for electronics such as computers and printers Yes

The Recycling Process

The recycling process for HIPS involves the following steps:

  • Collection and sorting of HIPS waste
  • Cleaning and removal of contaminants
  • Shredding, granulating, or grinding the material into small particles
  • Melting and extruding the particles into new HIPS pellets or sheets

Challenges in Recycling

Some challenges in recycling HIPS include the separation of HIPS from other plastics, contamination from food and other waste, and the limited availability of recycling facilities.

Current State of High Impact Polystyrene Recycling

Recycling Rates

Though exact figures are difficult to find, it is estimated that only a small percentage of HIPS is currently being recycled worldwide.

Industry Initiatives

There are ongoing efforts by industry stakeholders to improve recycling rates for HIPS, such as the development of better recycling technologies and the promotion of recycling programs.

Government Regulations

Governments around the world are implementing policies and regulations to encourage recycling, including mandates for the use of recycled content in new products.

Future of High Impact Polystyrene Recycling

Advancements in Recycling Technology

New technologies, such as advanced sorting and cleaning systems, are being developed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of HIPS recycling.

Increased Demand for Recycled Materials

As awareness about environmental issues grows, there is an increasing demand for products made from recycled materials, which can help drive the market for recycled HIPS.

Potential Impact on the Environment

By improving HIPS recycling rates, we can significantly reduce the environmental impacts of plastic waste and help preserve the planet for future generations.


High Impact Polystyrene is a versatile, durable material that can be recycled, but current recycling rates are low. Industry initiatives and government regulations are helping to improve the situation, but there is still much work to be done.

Everyone has a role to play in increasing recycling rates for HIPS and other materials, from individual consumers to large corporations and governments. By working together, we can create a more sustainable future and reduce the environmental impacts of High Impact Polystyrene and other plastic materials.


Is High Impact Polystyrene biodegradable?

No, High Impact Polystyrene is not biodegradable. It can persist in the environment for a long time if not properly recycled, which is why it is crucial to increase recycling efforts for this material.

What is the difference between polystyrene and high impact polystyrene?

Polystyrene is a rigid, brittle plastic, while High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) is a combination of polystyrene and polybutadiene rubber, making it more durable and impact-resistant. HIPS is often used in applications where greater strength and toughness are required.

What type of polystyrene is recyclable?

Both regular polystyrene (often referred to as Styrofoam) and High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) are recyclable. However, recycling facilities for these materials may not be readily available in all areas, and recycling rates for both types of polystyrene are generally low.


  • Jen Wheeler

    Jen Wheeler, co-founder of Recycling-Revolution.com, holds degrees from UC Berkeley, Yale, and Stanford. A renowned environmentalist, she's championed sustainable practices at global events and leads EcoBright Solutions, focusing on recycling education and eco-friendly products.

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